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ESG Reporting in the US: What to Know

ESG Reporting in the US


Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) reporting has become a focal point for investors, regulators, and companies in the United States. As the demand for corporate transparency and accountability grows, ESG reporting is increasingly seen as a critical component of a company’s disclosure practices. This article delves into the intricate web of ESG reporting requirements, standards, and regulations that are shaping the corporate landscape in the U.S. and influencing global markets.

ESG Reporting Requirements in the US

The United States is witnessing a significant shift in ESG reporting requirements, driven by a combination of regulatory actions, investor demands, and societal expectations. Unlike the European Union, which has implemented specific directives on ESG, the U.S. has traditionally had a more market-led approach to ESG considerations. However, recent developments indicate a move towards more structured regulatory requirements.

Federal Initiatives and Executive Orders

Under the Biden Administration, there has been a concerted effort to integrate ESG considerations into the broader regulatory framework. A pivotal moment came in February 2021 when President Biden issued an executive order requiring the federal government to assess, disclose, and mitigate climate-related risks across all sectors of the economy. This executive order set the stage for a series of regulatory initiatives aimed at embedding ESG factors into the decision-making processes of federal agencies and the companies they regulate.

SEC’s Role and Proposed Rules

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has been at the forefront of these changes. Recognizing the material impact of ESG factors on financial performance, the SEC has proposed new rules to enhance and standardize climate-related disclosures. These rules are expected to bring greater clarity and consistency to how companies report on ESG matters, particularly in relation to climate risks and their impact on business operations.

The SEC’s proposed rules reflect a growing understanding that ESG issues are not peripheral concerns but central to a company’s financial health and long-term viability. By requiring detailed disclosures, the SEC aims to provide investors with the information they need to make informed decisions, while also encouraging companies to adopt more sustainable and responsible business practices.

ESG Reporting Standards in the US

In the absence of a single, unified federal ESG reporting standard, various frameworks and standards have emerged to guide companies in their ESG disclosures. These standards aim to provide a common language and set of metrics for reporting on ESG issues, facilitating comparability and consistency across different companies and industries.

Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB)

One of the key players in the development of ESG reporting standards in the U.S. has been the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB). Established in 2011, SASB has developed a set of industry-specific standards that help companies identify and report on the ESG issues most relevant to their operations. These standards are designed to be compatible with existing financial reporting frameworks, making it easier for companies to integrate ESG reporting into their overall disclosure practices.

Nasdaq’s Board Diversity Requirements

Another significant development in the U.S. ESG landscape is Nasdaq’s introduction of board diversity disclosure requirements. These requirements, which are subject to ongoing litigation, mandate companies listed on the Nasdaq exchange to disclose the composition of their boards in terms of diversity. Companies are expected to have, or explain why they do not have, at least two diverse directors. This move underscores the importance of governance in ESG considerations and reflects a broader trend towards greater diversity and inclusion in corporate leadership.

Also Read: ESG Reporting Trends: 10 Things to watch out for in the Coming Years

ESG Disclosure Regulation in the US

The regulatory framework for ESG disclosures in the United States is rapidly evolving, with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) playing a pivotal role in shaping the future of ESG reporting. The SEC has historically required public companies to disclose material information to investors, which increasingly includes ESG-related risks and opportunities.

SEC’s Guidelines for ESG Disclosures

In January 2020, the SEC issued guidance emphasizing the importance of disclosing key performance indicators related to ESG matters. Companies are encouraged to consider whether ESG issues—such as climate change impacts, labor practices, or board diversity—could be material to investors and, therefore, require disclosure. This guidance was a significant step towards formalizing ESG disclosures, although it stopped short of mandating specific ESG reporting standards.

The Department of Labor’s (DOL) Stance on ESG Factors

The Department of Labor (DOL) has also weighed in on ESG disclosures, particularly in relation to investment decisions under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA). The DOL has clarified that ERISA fiduciaries can, and sometimes should, consider ESG factors in their investment processes when they are material to the investment’s risk and return. This guidance has opened the door for more ESG-focused investment strategies within the pension plan industry.

Also Read: ESG Reporting and Social Responsibility: How to Report on Your Social Impact

Comparison with Global ESG Reporting Standards

As the U.S. continues to develop its ESG reporting framework, it is instructive to compare its approach with that of other jurisdictions, which can highlight both convergences and divergences in global ESG practices.

EU ESG Reporting Standards Versus US Regulations

The European Union has been a leader in ESG regulation, implementing comprehensive directives such as the Sustainable Finance Disclosure Regulation (SFDR) and the Non-Financial Reporting Directive (NFRD). These regulations require detailed ESG disclosures, pushing companies towards greater transparency and accountability. In contrast, the U.S. has been more cautious, with a market-driven approach that is now beginning to align more closely with global standards through the SEC’s recent proposals.

China’s ESG Reporting Requirements

China, too, has been making strides in ESG reporting, with the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) mandating ESG disclosures for listed companies. While the scope and detail of China’s requirements differ from those in the U.S., the global trend towards ESG transparency is clear, with major economies recognizing the importance of ESG information for market stability and investor protection.

Also Read: ESG Reporting: A Comprehensive Guide for Businesses of All Sizes

The Difference Between ESG Reporting and Sustainability Reporting

While ESG reporting and sustainability reporting are often used interchangeably, there are nuances that distinguish the two.

Defining ESG Reporting and Sustainability Reporting

ESG reporting focuses on the collection and disclosure of data that investors use to assess non-financial risks and opportunities related to environmental, social, and governance issues. It is closely tied to a company’s financial performance and long-term value creation.

Sustainability reporting, on the other hand, is broader and considers the impact of a company on the environment and society. It is often aligned with corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives and may not always be directly linked to financial performance.

How They Overlap and Differ in the US Context

In the U.S., sustainability reporting has traditionally been voluntary and narrative in nature, often highlighting a company’s CSR efforts. However, as ESG factors become increasingly material to financial performance, the line between ESG and sustainability reporting is blurring. Companies are now integrating ESG data into their sustainability reports, and vice versa, to provide a holistic view of their performance and impact.

Also Read: ESG Reporting for the Public Sector: How to Demonstrate Your Commitment to Sustainability

State-Level ESG Initiatives and Challenges

The ESG regulatory landscape in the United States is not only shaped by federal actions but also by diverse state-level initiatives, which present both opportunities and challenges for companies and investors.

Ideological Battles at the State Level

Across the U.S., states are increasingly influential in the ESG domain, often reflecting the nation’s broader political and ideological spectrum. Liberal-leaning states, such as California and New York, have been proactive in integrating ESG considerations into their investment decisions and corporate governance standards. Conversely, conservative-led states have introduced measures to push back against what they perceive as the overreach of ESG principles, particularly when it comes to fossil fuel investments and gun rights.

State-Level Regulations and Their Impact on ESG Reporting

State-level actions have led to a patchwork of regulations that companies must navigate. For instance, several states have enacted laws requiring companies to report on board diversity or to consider climate risks in their operations. These state-specific requirements can create complexity for companies operating nationally, as they must reconcile these diverse mandates with federal regulations and their own corporate policies.

Also Read: ESG Reporting for Global Enterprises: Tips and Resources

The Future of ESG Reporting in the US

As the regulatory environment continues to evolve, the future of ESG reporting in the U.S. is poised for further development, influenced by both domestic and international trends.

Predictions for ESG Reporting Regulations

Experts predict that ESG reporting in the U.S. will become more standardized and possibly mandatory, as seen with the SEC’s proposed rules. This trend is likely to be driven by increasing investor demand for ESG information, the recognition of ESG factors as material to financial performance, and the need for consistency in reporting standards.

The Influence of Global ESG Regulatory Frameworks

The global movement towards standardized ESG reporting frameworks, such as the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) and the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), is also impacting U.S. regulations. As American companies operate in a global marketplace, they are influenced by these international standards, which may lead to a more harmonized approach to ESG reporting both domestically and abroad.

Also Read: ESG Reporting and Responsible Investment: How to Report on Your ESG Performance to Investors


The current state of ESG reporting in the United States reflects a dynamic and evolving landscape. Amidst the push for greater transparency and accountability, companies are adapting to a complex mix of federal and state regulations, as well as to the expectations of a diverse group of stakeholders.

Summary of the Current State of ESG Reporting in the US

ESG reporting in the U.S. is at a crossroads, with significant developments at the federal level signaling a shift towards more rigorous and standardized disclosures. At the same time, state-level initiatives continue to shape the practicalities of ESG implementation, reflecting the varied political and economic priorities across the country.

The Importance of Staying Updated with ESG Regulations

For companies and investors alike, staying abreast of these changes is crucial. As the regulatory framework for ESG reporting continues to solidify, those who are well-informed and agile in their response will be better positioned to navigate the risks and capitalize on the opportunities that ESG considerations present. Book a demo now!

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