Lythouse Logo
Register Now for Launch of our ESG platform, explore the ESG trends for 2024.

Home » Blog » GHG Emissions » Understanding Upstream vs Downstream Emissions for Better Climate Action

Understanding Upstream vs Downstream Emissions for Better Climate Action

Understanding Upstream vs Downstream Emissions for Better Climate Action

Understanding and managing both upstream and downstream emissions are essential for companies aiming to reduce their overall carbon footprint and achieve sustainability goals. Upstream emissions arise from activities before a company’s operations, such as the production of purchased goods and services, while downstream emissions occur post-operation, including product use and disposal. Accurate measurement and targeted reduction strategies for these emissions provide valuable insights for sustainable business practices. By addressing emissions throughout their value chain, companies can significantly mitigate climate impact, enhance efficiency, and meet regulatory requirements, thereby contributing to global sustainability efforts.

What Are Upstream Emissions?

Upstream emissions refer to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that occur in the supply chain before a company’s operations. These emissions are part of Scope 3, which encompasses all indirect emissions that a company is responsible for, outside of their direct operations (categorized as Scope 1 and 2). Understanding upstream emissions is crucial as they often represent a significant portion of a company’s total carbon footprint. Upstream emissions can be broken down into various categories:

  • Purchased Goods and Services: These emissions result from the production of goods and services that a company buys. This includes everything from raw materials to office supplies. For instance, a manufacturer’s upstream emissions will include emissions from the production of the metals and plastics they purchase for their products.
  • Capital Goods: These are emissions associated with the production of assets used by a company over multiple years, such as machinery, buildings, and vehicles. The manufacturing and transportation of these goods contribute significantly to upstream emissions.
  • Fuel- and Energy-Related Activities: This category captures emissions from the production of fuels and electricity that a company purchases and consumes. This includes upstream emissions from mining coal or extracting oil and gas.
  • Transportation and Distribution: Emissions from the transportation of goods before they reach a company’s operations fall into this category. This includes logistics activities such as shipping, trucking, rail transport, and air freight.
  • Waste Generated in Operations: This includes emissions from the treatment and disposal of waste generated in a company’s operations. Although this may seem like a downstream activity, it is considered upstream when the focus is on the waste management by third parties.
  • Employee Commuting and Business Travel: Emissions from employees commuting to work and traveling for business purposes are also considered upstream. These activities, while seemingly minor, can add up significantly, particularly in large organizations with global footprints.

Accurately measuring upstream emissions is vital for companies aiming to reduce their overall carbon footprint. It can also provide insights for making more sustainable purchasing decisions, identifying opportunities for improving supply chain efficiency, and engaging suppliers in sustainability initiatives. By understanding and managing upstream emissions, companies can not only reduce their environmental impact but also strengthen their market position by meeting stakeholder expectations and regulatory requirements.

What Are Downstream Emissions?

Downstream emissions refer to GHG emissions that occur after a company’s operations, as part of the product’s lifecycle. These are also categorized under Scope 3 emissions and are essential for understanding the full environmental impact of a company’s products and services. Just like upstream emissions, downstream emissions can be significant and encompass various stages of a product’s life post-production. They include:

  • Transportation and Distribution: Emissions from transporting and distributing a company’s products to consumers fall under this category. This includes shipping, trucking, rail transport, and air freight carried out by third-party logistics providers after the products leave the company’s control.
  • Processing of Sold Products: These are emissions resulting from the further processing of products sold by the reporting company. For example, raw materials supplied to a manufacturer for further processing and production before reaching the end customer.
  • Use of Sold Products: One of the largest sources of downstream emissions, this category includes the GHG emissions generated from the use of a company’s products by consumers or other businesses. For instance, the emissions produced by cars, electronics, or appliances during their operational life.
  • End-of-Life Treatment of Sold Products: This includes emissions from the disposal, recycling, or treatment of products once they are no longer useful. Proper waste management, or lack thereof, can significantly impact downstream emissions.
  • Franchises: Emissions arising from the operation of franchises that are not included in a company’s Scope 1 or Scope 2 emissions but are related to its brand and operations. For example, a franchised restaurant chain’s energy use and waste management practices.
  • Investments: GHG emissions resulting from investments made by the company, including those related to the financing of projects or operations that have significant carbon footprints.

Managing downstream emissions is crucial for companies aiming to mitigate their environmental impact effectively. By understanding these emissions, businesses can develop more sustainable product designs, enhance the efficiency of product use, and optimize end-of-life product management. Strategies to manage downstream emissions might include designing energy-efficient products, providing guidance on sustainable product use, and establishing robust recycling programs. Additionally, companies can engage with customers and educate them on reducing emissions through product use. Effectively managing downstream emissions not only helps mitigate climate change but also contributes to a company’s reputation and compliance with regulatory requirements.

Examples of Upstream and Downstream Emissions

Examples of upstream and downstream emissions illustrate the diverse sources and activities that contribute to a company’s overall greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint. By understanding these examples, companies can better identify opportunities for emissions reduction throughout their value chain. Here are specific examples for both upstream and downstream emissions:

Upstream Emissions Examples

  • Purchased Goods and Services:
    • A clothing retailer’s upstream emissions include the GHGs from manufacturing fabrics, dyes, and buttons used in their products.
    • An electronics company faces upstream emissions from sourcing raw materials like metals for circuitry and plastic for casings.
  • Capital Goods:
    • A construction firm’s upstream emissions stem from the production of heavy machinery, such as excavators and cranes.
    • A tech company’s data centers have upstream emissions from the manufacture of servers and cooling equipment.
  • Fuel- and Energy-Related Activities:
    • A transportation company’s upstream emissions include the drilling, refining, and transportation of the fuel they use in their vehicles.
    • A power generation company faces upstream emissions from mining coal for their coal-fired power plants.
  • Transportation and Distribution:
    • A logistics company’s upstream emissions derive from the production and maintenance of the trucks, ships, and airplanes used to transport goods.
  • Employee Commuting and Business Travel:
    • A global corporation’s upstream emissions include the GHGs from employees flying to international meetings and conferences.
  • Waste Generated in Operations:
    • A manufacturing plant’s upstream emissions come from the processing and disposal of industrial waste by third parties.

Downstream Emissions Examples

  • Transportation and Distribution:
    • An e-commerce company’s downstream emissions include the delivery of products to customers via courier services.
  • Processing of Sold Products:
    • A food processing company’s downstream emissions arise from the need to package, transport, and refrigerate goods for retailers.
    • A raw material supplier’s downstream emissions include the further refinement carried out by their buyers.
  • Use of Sold Products:
    • An automotive company faces downstream emissions from the tailpipe emissions of the cars they sell.
    • An appliance manufacturer sees downstream emissions from the electricity consumers use to power their refrigerators and washing machines.
  • End-of-Life Treatment of Sold Products:
    • An electronics company’s downstream emissions include the recycling or disposal of old devices by consumers.
  • Franchises:
    • A fast-food chain’s downstream emissions stem from the energy use and waste generation at franchised restaurants.
  • Investments:
    • A financial institution’s downstream emissions include the GHGs from projects and businesses it funds, such as fossil fuel extraction.

By recognizing these examples, companies can take targeted actions to reduce emissions throughout their value chain, thereby making significant strides towards sustainability and climate goals.

How to Measure and Reduce Upstream and Downstream Emissions

Measuring and reducing both upstream and downstream emissions are crucial steps in managing a company’s carbon footprint and achieving sustainability goals. Accurate measurement provides the data required for targeted reduction strategies. Here’s how companies can measure and reduce these emissions:

Measuring Upstream and Downstream Emissions

  • Identify Emission Sources:
    • Map out the entire value chain to pinpoint where emissions occur within upstream and downstream activities.
  • Data Collection:
    • Gather data from suppliers on their emissions and energy use for upstream measurements.
    • Monitor product usage patterns and end-of-life disposal to collect downstream emissions data.
  • Use Emission Factors:
    • Apply established emission factors from reputable sources like the GHG Protocol to estimate emissions from various activities.
  • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA):
    • Conduct a detailed LCA to understand the environmental impact of a product from production to disposal.
  • Software Tools:

Reducing Upstream and Downstream Emissions

  • Supplier Engagement:
    • Work with suppliers to improve their sustainability practices, such as using renewable energy and optimizing resource use.
    • Incorporate sustainability criteria in supplier selection and procurement processes.
  • Sustainable Product Design:
    • Design products that are energy-efficient, durable, and easier to recycle or dispose of responsibly.
  • Improve Logistics:
    • Optimize transportation routes and methods to reduce emissions from product distribution. Consider using low-emission vehicles and alternative fuels.
    • Implement better inventory management to minimize unnecessary shipments.
  • Consumer Education:
    • Educate consumers on how to use products efficiently to minimize energy consumption and emissions during the use phase.
    • Provide clear instructions on recycling and proper disposal of products.
  • Waste Management Initiatives:
    • Develop programs to manage product end-of-life, including take-back schemes and partnerships with recycling companies.
  • Invest in Technology:
    • Adopt cutting-edge technologies that enhance energy efficiency and reduce emissions throughout the value chain.

By employing these strategies, companies can effectively measure and reduce their upstream and downstream emissions, leading to a comprehensive approach to sustainability and climate change mitigation.


Effectively measuring and reducing upstream and downstream emissions is crucial for meaningful climate action. By identifying and addressing emissions throughout the entire value chain, companies can significantly lower their carbon footprint and enhance sustainability. Engaging suppliers, optimizing logistics, designing sustainable products, and educating consumers are all vital strategies. Implementing these approaches not only helps mitigate environmental impact but also strengthens a company’s market position and compliance with regulatory standards. Commitment to comprehensive emissions management ultimately leads to a more sustainable future, benefiting both businesses and the planet.

How we can help

Lythouse offers comprehensive solutions to help companies measure and reduce upstream and downstream emissions. The Carbon Analyzer ensures precise Scope 1, 2, and 3 emission tracking using AI-powered data classification. The Green Supplier Network streamlines supplier collaboration, facilitating accurate emissions data collection and commitment to shared ESG goals. ESG Reporting Studio supports compliance with global frameworks, enabling efficient ESG reporting. Goal Navigator aids in setting, monitoring, and achieving sustainability targets by unifying stakeholder efforts and providing a transparent view of progress. These integrated tools make Lythouse a powerful platform for driving sustainability across the entire value.


For everyday updates, subscribe here.