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Greenwashing – Definition, types, how to spot it, and tackle it?

ESG Greenwashing

The sustainability movement has gained undeniable momentum, with consumers increasingly prioritizing eco-friendly products and services. This shift presents a golden opportunity for businesses to demonstrate their commitment to environmental responsibility. However, some companies resort to misleading tactics, creating a deceptive facade of sustainability – a practice known as greenwashing. Let’s understand more about what is greenwashing and how it happens? 

What is Greenwashing? 

Greenwashing refers to deceptive marketing and communication strategies that portray a company’s products, practices, or policies as environmentally friendly when they are not. It’s essentially a ploy to capitalize on the growing demand for sustainable solutions while masking potentially harmful environmental impacts.

The Alarming Rise of Greenwashing 

A worldwide review of randomly chosen websites has revealed that 42% of sustainability assertions found online might mislead consumers. This highlights the pervasiveness of greenwashing and its potential to mislead consumers. 

Why Should Sustainability Professionals Care? 

Greenwashing poses a significant threat to the integrity of the sustainability movement. It erodes consumer trust, hinders progress towards genuine sustainability goals, and creates an unfair advantage for companies that genuinely invest in environmentally sound practices. 

Types of Greenwashing 

Greenwashing can be categorized based on its intent and level of sophistication: 

  • Vagueness: Making ambiguous claims that are impossible to verify. 
  • Hidden Trade-offs: Focusing on one positive environmental aspect while neglecting the negative impacts in other areas. 
  • Sinwashing: Companies in polluting industries attempt to portray themselves as environmentally friendly. 
  • False Labels: Misusing certifications or eco-labels to mislead consumers. 

Greenwashing examples 

Here are a few real-life examples of greenwashing: 

  • Volkswagen “Clean Diesel” Scandal (2015): Volkswagen marketed their diesel cars as eco-friendly with “clean diesel” technology. However, they were caught installing software that cheated emissions tests, leading to a massive lawsuit and billions in fines. 
  • Kimberly-Clark “Cottonelle Toilet Paper”: In 2010, Kimberly-Clark faced accusations of greenwashing for their “Cottonelle EcoSoft” toilet paper. The ads portrayed the product as environmentally friendly, despite the fact that the production of virgin wood pulp (a key ingredient) contributes to deforestation. 
  • Fiji Water “Eco-Friendly Packaging”: Fiji Water was sued in 2008 for claiming their water bottling process was environmentally responsible. The lawsuit argued that the company used vast amounts of plastic and resources to transport water long distances. 
  • H&M “Conscious Collection” (2019): The Swedish clothing giant H&M faced criticism for their “Conscious Collection,” which was marketed as sustainable. However, a Norwegian consumer watchdog group sued them for misleading marketing, as the collection still relied heavily on conventional, non-sustainable materials. 
  • Nestle “Pure Life” Bottled Water (2008): Nestle, the food and beverage giant, was accused of greenwashing with their “Pure Life” bottled water campaign. The lawsuit alleged that the company misled consumers about the environmental impact of plastic bottles and water extraction practices. 

Unmasking the Green washers: Common Techniques 

Greenwashing manifests in various ways. Here’s a breakdown of some of the most common greenwashing techniques: 

  • Empty Promises and Vague Claims: Companies make unsubstantiated claims about their environmental commitment without providing concrete details or data to back them up. Phrases like “eco-friendly” and “sustainable” become meaningless buzzwords. 
  • Partial Truths and Cherry-picking Data: Companies might highlight a single eco-friendly aspect of their product or service while conveniently neglecting their overall environmental footprint. This creates a misleading impression of sustainability. 
  • Green Imagery and Eco-Labels: Companies exploit visuals like lush landscapes and recycled symbols to evoke a sense of environmental responsibility, even if their practices are far from sustainable. 
  • Focus on Sustainability Efforts While Ignoring Core Issues: Companies might promote initiatives like recycling programs to distract from their core business activities that are environmentally damaging. 
  • Confusing Terminology and Eco-washing Jargon: Companies create new, seemingly sustainable-sounding terms to deflect attention from their true environmental impact. 

CSR Greenwashing: A Specific Concern 

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives are often used as a greenwashing tool. Companies might boast about charitable donations or social programs to divert attention from their unsustainable practices. 

Combating Greenwashing: What Sustainability Professionals Can Do 

Sustainability professionals have a crucial role to play in exposing greenwashing and promoting genuine sustainability efforts. Here are some actionable steps: 

  • Develop a Comprehensive Sustainability Strategy: Focus on measurable goals, data-driven progress tracking, and transparent communication. 
  • Educate Consumers: Raise awareness about greenwashing tactics and empower consumers to make informed choices. Partner with NGOs and consumer advocacy groups. 
  • Advocate for Greenwashing Regulation: Support stricter regulations that hold companies accountable for misleading sustainability claims. 
  • Embrace Transparency: Lead by example by being transparent about your company’s sustainability journey, highlighting both successes and challenges. 

EU Cracks Down: New Greenwashing Regulation Bans Misleading Eco Claims 

Misleading eco claims get the boot in the EU. In January, 2024, the European Union passed a new law, the Directive on Empowering Consumers for the Green Transition (ECGT), that cracks down on greenwashing. This means companies can no longer make unsubstantiated claims about their environmental friendliness. 

What’s banned? Vague terms like “eco-friendly” or “carbon neutral” are out without verifiable proof. The law also targets misleading claims based on carbon offsetting. 

Why it matters? This isn’t just an EU issue. The ECGT reflects a global trend towards stricter greenwashing regulations. Businesses everywhere should take note: greenwashing is morphing from a marketing tactic to a potential legal liability. 

What’s next? While the ECGT takes effect in the EU within two years, it serves as a warning sign. Companies worldwide need to ensure their environmental claims are honest and transparent to avoid consumer backlash and potential legal trouble. 


Greenwashing undermines genuine efforts to achieve a sustainable future. By staying informed about greenwashing tactics, implementing robust sustainability practices, and advocating for transparency, sustainability professionals can play a pivotal role in building trust and accelerating progress towards a greener tomorrow. Book a demo today!


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