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Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive: CSRD Regulations and Legal Framework

CSRD Regulation


The global sustainability landscape is shifting rapidly. Consumers, investors, and regulators are demanding greater transparency from companies regarding their environmental and social impact. In response, the European Union (EU) introduced the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD regulation), marking a significant step towards standardized and comprehensive sustainability reporting. 

This quick read serves as a deep dive into the legal intricacies of the CSRD regulation for Chief Sustainability Officers (CSOs), Sustainability Professionals and Executives. It also talks about the potential legal challenges and explore practical insights for navigating CSRD compliance. 

Why is the CSRD Regulation Important? 

A recent study by ESG Today found that 80% of global asset owners consider ESG factors in their investment decisions. This trend highlights the growing importance of sustainability for businesses. The CSRD regulation aims to: 

  • Increase Transparency and Accountability: By mandating standardized sustainability reporting, the CSRD aims to provide a clear picture of a company’s environmental and social impact. This empowers stakeholders to make informed decisions. 
  • Level the Playing Field: The CSRD establishes a common reporting framework, ensuring a fair and consistent comparison between companies within the EU. 
  • Support Sustainable Investments: High-quality sustainability reporting fosters trust and transparency, attracting investors seeking environmentally and socially responsible companies. 
  • Drive Sustainable Business Practices: The CSRD incentivizes businesses to integrate sustainability into their core operations to improve performance and mitigate risks. 

Key Legal Aspects of the CSRD Regulation 

The CSRD regulation introduces significant changes compared to the existing Non-Financial Reporting Directive (NFRD). Here’s a breakdown of the key legal aspects: 

  • Scoping Provision:The CSRD significantly expands the number of companies required to report (from approximately 11,000 under NFRD to nearly 50,00 under CSRD). This includes non-EU companies with a turnover exceeding €150 million in the EU and EU companies and subsidiaries meeting two out of three criteria:
    • 250 or more employees,  
    • €40 million in net turnover, and  
    • €20 million in total assets.
  • Double Materiality: The CSRD mandates “double materiality” reporting. Companies must disclose not only the sustainability risks they face but also the impact their activities have on the environment and society. This ensures a holistic view of a company’s sustainability footprint. 
  • Standardized Reporting Format: The CSRD requires companies to submit sustainability data in a standardized digital format. This enhances comparability and facilitates data analysis. The European Sustainability Reporting Standards (ESRS), adopted by the European Commission in July 2023, will define the specific reporting requirements. 
  • Limited Third-Party Assurance: The data submitted under the CSRD will undergo “limited third-party assurance.” This involves an auditor evaluating the data’s accuracy and completeness, adding a layer of credibility. 

Potential Legal Challenges and Gray Areas 

While the CSRD offers a clearer framework for sustainability reporting, there are potential legal challenges and Gray areas: 

  • Scope 3 Emissions: The proposed value chain sustainability reporting under the CSRD requires companies to report ‘scope 3’ emissions, which are indirect emissions resulting from upstream and downstream activities. Measuring these emissions can be complex, and the legal implications of inaccurate reporting remain unclear. 
  • Data Availability and Standardization: The CSRD emphasizes standardized data reporting. However, companies might face challenges in accessing and standardizing historical sustainability data. 
  • Enforcement Mechanisms: The specific enforcement mechanisms for non-compliance with the CSRD are still being defined. Understanding the potential penalties will be crucial for businesses. 

CSRD vs. NFRD: A Comparative Analysis 

Feature  NFRD  CSRD Regulation 
Scope  Limited to large, listed companies and public-interest entities  Expands to include all large companies, including non-EU companies with a subsidiary in the EU 
Reporting Requirements  Less detailed and standardized  More detailed and standardized reporting based on ESRS 
Double Materiality  Not explicitly mandated  Mandatory “double materiality” reporting 
Assurance  No requirement  Limited third-party assurance 

The CSRD represents a significant step forward compared to the NFRD. It offers a more comprehensive framework, standardized reporting, and a focus on both environmental and social impact. 

CSRD in the Global Context: A Look at Similar Regulations 

The CSRD is not the only regulation mandating sustainability reporting. Several other jurisdictions have implemented or are considering similar regulations, including: 

  • Global Reporting Initiative (GRI): While not a regulation, GRI is a widely adopted sustainability reporting framework offering guidance for companies worldwide. 
  • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the US: The SEC recently proposed a rule requiring climate-related disclosures from publicly traded companies. 
  • Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD): The TCFD provides recommendations for companies to disclose climate-related risks and opportunities. While not mandatory, it’s gaining significant traction globally. 
  • Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB): SASB develops industry-specific sustainability accounting standards and prioritizes financial materiality for investors. 

The emergence of these regulations underscores the growing global emphasis on corporate sustainability reporting. Understanding these similarities and differences will be crucial for companies operating across borders. 

Navigating CSRD Compliance: Practical Insights 

Here are some practical steps businesses can take to prepare for CSRD compliance: 

  • Conduct a Gap Analysis: Assess your current sustainability reporting practices against the CSRD requirements. Identify areas needing improvement. 
  • Develop a Sustainability Strategy: Integrate sustainability considerations into your core business strategy. Define clear goals and targets for environmental and social impact. 
  • Invest in Data Collection and Management Systems: Implement robust systems to collect, analyze, and store sustainability data. Simplify the complexities of selecting an ESG software solution with a Request for Proposal (RFP) Template. 
  • Seek Expert Guidance: Consider partnering with sustainability consultants or software providers specializing in CSRD compliance. Lythouse ESG Reporting offers comprehensive solutions to streamline data collection, reporting, and analysis, ensuring efficient CSRD compliance. 
  • Stay Updated: The CSRD and related regulations are evolving. Regularly monitor official updates and guidance from the European Commission. 


The CSRD regulation signifies a paradigm shift towards mandatory, standardized, and comprehensive sustainability reporting. By understanding the legal framework, potential challenges, and best practices for compliance, CSOs and Sustainability Professionals and Executives can proactively navigate this new landscape. Investing in robust ESG reporting practices not only ensures compliance but also positions your company as a leader in sustainability, attracting investors and stakeholders seeking transparency and environmental responsibility. 

Lythouse ESG Software: Your Partner in CSRD Compliance 

Lythouse ESG software empowers businesses to seamlessly navigate the complexities of CSRD compliance. Our comprehensive suite of tools simplifies data collection, streamlines reporting processes, and ensures data accuracy and completeness. With Lythouse ESG, you can confidently meet the CSRD requirements and demonstrate your commitment to a sustainable future. 

Ready to take the next step? Book a demo today! 


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