Lythouse Logo
Register Now for Launch of our ESG platform, explore the ESG trends for 2024.

Home » Blog » GHG Emissions » SEC Climate Disclosure Rule: Mastering GHG Emissions Requirements

SEC Climate Disclosure Rule: Mastering GHG Emissions Requirements

SEC Climate Rule

The SEC Climate Disclosure Rule is a critical regulatory framework designed to enhance transparency and standardization in climate-related financial disclosures. By focusing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it ensures that investors have access to reliable data for informed decision-making. The rule’s key components include mandatory disclosures of Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions, voluntary Scope 3 reporting, and robust internal controls and third-party assurances. It applies to a wide range of entities, from publicly traded companies to foreign issuers, with specific compliance timelines. The final rule incorporates stakeholder feedback, refining the proposed requirements to balance comprehensive reporting with operational feasibility.

Purpose and Importance of the SEC Climate Disclosure Rule

The purpose of the SEC Climate Disclosure Rule is to provide transparency and standardization in climate-related financial disclosures, with a specific emphasis on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This regulatory framework aims to ensure that investors have access to consistent, comparable, and reliable information regarding a company’s climate-related risks and opportunities. By comprehensively addressing these aspects, the SEC intends to enhance informed decision-making among investors, ultimately promoting responsible investment practices and mitigating financial risks associated with climate change.

Several critical objectives underscore the importance of the SEC Climate Disclosure Rule:

  • Investor Protection: By mandating the disclosure of climate-related financial information, the rule aims to protect investors from unforeseen risks. Transparent reporting on GHG emissions and other climate-related data enables investors to assess a company’s vulnerability to climate change, ensuring that they are not exposed to hidden risks.
  • Market Stability: Consistent and comprehensive climate disclosures contribute to overall market stability. By understanding the impact of climate change on different sectors, investors and regulatory bodies can better anticipate systemic risks and take appropriate measures to safeguard overall financial stability.
  • Corporate Accountability: The rule places responsibility on companies to accurately measure and report their GHG emissions and climate-related risks. This accountability drives organizations toward sustainable practices, encouraging them to reduce their carbon footprint and improve environmental performance.

The SEC Climate Disclosure Rule also aligns with broader international efforts to combat climate change. Harmonizing financial disclosures with global standards ensures that the U.S. remains a key player in the international climate policy landscape. This alignment facilitates cross-border investment and helps multinational corporations adhere to a unified set of guidelines, enhancing global climate action.

Furthermore, the rule recognizes the critical role of internal controls and third-party assurances in ensuring the reliability and accuracy of climate disclosures. Companies are required to implement robust internal controls to oversee their climate-related financial reporting processes. Additionally, independent third-party verification of GHG emissions data adds an extra layer of credibility, boosting investor confidence in the disclosed information.

Ultimately, the SEC Climate Disclosure Rule serves as a pivotal mechanism for integrating climate risks into the financial system. By emphasizing the importance of GHG emissions disclosure, the rule fosters a more sustainable and resilient economy. Companies that proactively comply with these requirements are better positioned to navigate the transition to a low-carbon future, aligning with evolving regulatory landscapes and market expectations.

Key Requirements for GHG Emissions Disclosure

The SEC Climate Disclosure Rule outlines several key requirements for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions disclosure, aimed at enhancing transparency and consistency in reporting. These requirements are intended to provide investors with detailed information about a company’s GHG emissions, enabling more informed decision-making related to climate risks and opportunities. Below are the primary components of the GHG emissions disclosure requirements:

  • Scope 1 Emissions: Companies must report their direct GHG emissions, which are emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the company. This includes emissions from manufacturing processes, company-owned vehicles, and onsite energy production.
  • Scope 2 Emissions: Reporting of indirect GHG emissions from the consumption of purchased electricity, steam, heating, and cooling is mandatory. These emissions occur at the facilities where the purchased energy is produced but are attributable to the company’s energy use.
  • Scope 3 Emissions (Optional):While not mandatory, companies are encouraged to disclose Scope 3 emissions, which cover all other indirect emissions in a company’s value chain. This includes emissions from suppliers, product use, waste generated, business travel, and other relevant activities. Though optional, reporting Scope 3 emissions provides a comprehensive view of a company’s total carbon footprint.
  • Methodology and Framework: Companies must provide a detailed description of the methodologies and frameworks used to calculate their GHG emissions. This includes specifying which standards or guidelines (e.g., the GHG Protocol) were followed, ensuring that the reported data is comparable and reliable.
  • Comparative Data: To facilitate trend analysis, companies are required to present GHG emissions data for the current reporting period as well as the previous reporting periods. This historical data helps investors understand how a company’s emissions profile is evolving over time.
  • Risk Management and Strategy: Companies must disclose information on how they manage climate-related risks and opportunities. This includes outlining specific strategies and actions taken to mitigate GHG emissions, such as energy efficiency initiatives, renewable energy adoption, and supply chain engagement.
  • Assurance and Verification: The rule emphasizes the importance of third-party assurance to enhance the credibility of the disclosed GHG emissions data. Companies are encouraged to seek external verification of their emissions to ensure accuracy and reliability.

These key requirements, when implemented effectively, provide a comprehensive framework for GHG emissions disclosure. They not only enhance the quality of information available to investors but also incentivize companies to adopt sustainable practices and reduce their carbon footprint.

Applicability of the SEC Climate Rule

The applicability of the SEC Climate Rule extends to a wide range of entities, ensuring that relevant climate-related financial disclosures are integrated across various sectors and market participants. The rule targets both domestic and foreign publicly traded companies, with specific criteria determining which organizations must comply. Understanding these criteria is essential for companies to ascertain their obligations under the rule.

The primary categories of entities subject to the SEC Climate Rule include:

  • Publicly Traded Companies: All companies listed on U.S. stock exchanges are required to adhere to the climate disclosure rules. This includes entities of all market capitalizations, from small-cap to large-cap firms, ensuring comprehensive coverage across the spectrum.
  • Foreign Private Issuers: Foreign companies trading securities on U.S. exchanges are also required to comply. This provision ensures that international firms meet the same disclosure standards, maintaining consistency and comparability across markets.
  • Disclosure Thresholds: Specific thresholds regarding market capitalization and revenue may influence applicability. Companies meeting these financial criteria must provide detailed climate-related disclosures, including GHG emissions data.
  • Industry-Specific Requirements: Certain industries with higher environmental impacts, such as energy, manufacturing, and transportation, are subject to more rigorous disclosure standards. These sectors must provide detailed information owing to their significant contribution to climate change.

The rule also delineates specific compliance timelines to accommodate various company sizes and capabilities:

  1. Large Accelerated Filers: The first to comply, these companies must start reporting in the year following the rules enactment, given their substantial resources to meet the requirements promptly.
  2. Accelerated Filers: These companies have an additional year to prepare and comply with the reporting requirements, recognizing their intermediate status in terms of resources and reporting sophistication.
  3. Non-Accelerated Filers and Smaller Reporting Companies: These entities are granted the longest timeline, typically two additional years, to adapt to the new requirements. This phased approach acknowledges the potential resource constraints of smaller firms.

The SEC Climate Rules applicability is designed to ensure that all relevant players in the financial markets are held accountable for their climate-related disclosures. By encompassing a broad range of companies, from large multinational corporations to smaller domestic firms, and by recognizing the specific challenges faced by different industries, the rule aims to foster a comprehensive and unified approach to climate risk transparency. This widespread applicability ensures that investors have access to critical information, reinforcing the overall integrity and resilience of the financial system in the face of climate-related challenges.

Differences Between Proposed and Final SEC Rules on GHG Emissions

The differences between the proposed and final SEC rules on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are significant, reflecting the agency’s response to feedback from stakeholders and the evolving landscape of climate-related financial disclosures. These adjustments aim to balance the need for comprehensive and reliable climate disclosures with the operational realities faced by companies. Understanding these differences is crucial for entities required to comply with the final rule.

Key differences include:

  • Scope 3 Emissions reporting: In the proposed rule, the reporting of Scope 3 emissions was heavily emphasized and close to being mandatory for many companies. However, the final rule provides more flexibility. While Scope 3 emissions disclosure is encouraged to offer a complete picture of a company’s carbon footprint, it is not strictly mandatory, thereby reducing the reporting burden on companies, particularly those with complex supply chains.
  • Phase-in Periods: The proposed rule initially suggested shorter timelines for compliance. In response to concerns about the readiness of companies, especially smaller ones, the final rule extends the phase-in periods. This adjustment allows more time for companies to establish robust reporting frameworks and internal controls necessary to report accurate data.
  • Assurance Requirements: Initially, the proposed rule required third-party assurance for all categories of emissions disclosures early in the implementation phase. The final rule takes a more graduated approach, initially focusing on third-party assurance for Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions while giving companies more time to incorporate assurance processes for other disclosures.
  • Materiality Thresholds: The final rule refines the definition of materiality used in climate disclosures. The proposed rule had a more encompassing threshold, which has now been adjusted to focus on information that is material to investors. This shift ensures that companies are disclosing climate-related information that genuinely impacts financial and operational decisions.
  • Industry-Specific Guidance: The final rule includes more detailed guidance for industries particularly affected by climate-related risks. The proposed rule offered more general guidelines, but the final rule recognizes the diverse impacts across sectors, providing tailored requirements and examples relevant to high-impact industries such as energy, manufacturing, and transportation.

The final SEC rule also emphasizes the need for clear descriptions of the methodologies and frameworks used in calculating GHG emissions. The proposed rule provided some flexibility, but the final rule insists on greater specificity to enhance comparability and reliability of the reported data. This ensures that investors can make more informed comparisons across different companies and sectors.

In summary, the final SEC rule on GHG emissions disclosure incorporates a balanced approach that responds to stakeholder feedback while preserving the integrity and utility of climate-related financial disclosures. These adjustments aim to ease the compliance burden on companies while ensuring that investors receive meaningful, transparent, and reliable information on GHG emissions.


The SEC Climate Disclosure Rule marks a significant step toward integrating climate risks into financial reporting across various industries. By mandating comprehensive GHG emissions disclosures, the rule aims to provide investors with critical, comparable data to assess climate-related risks and opportunities. The phased compliance approach and refined requirements ensure that companies of all sizes can effectively meet these standards. As businesses prepare to adapt to these regulations, the SEC’s emphasis on transparency and accountability in climate disclosures will drive more sustainable practices and enhance the resilience of the global financial system.

How we can help

Lythouse can assist companies in achieving their ESG goals and meeting compliance requirements through its suite of innovative tools. The Carbon Analyzer enables precise measurement and management of Scope 1, 2, and 3 emissions using AI-powered classification, ensuring accurate carbon accounting. The ESG Reporting Studio helps organizations adhere to global ESG regulations by streamlining data input and report generation processes. The Goal Navigator aids in setting, tracking, and achieving sustainability targets by aligning them with international standards like UNSDG and SBTi. Additionally, the Green Supplier Network fosters collaboration with suppliers, simplifying data collection and enhancing data accuracy for comprehensive ESG management


For everyday updates, subscribe here.